The Internet, social networking Web sites and political participation research: Assumptions and contradictory evidence


  • Isidoropaolo Casteltrione Queen Margaret University



political participation, Internet, social networking websites, conceptual weaknesses.


Over the last decade there has been a proliferation of academic studies addressing the relationship between the Internet and politics, with an increasing number of publications focusing on the impact of such a medium on political participation. Within this specific sub-field research has produced contrasting evidence and generated an intense academic debate. Some scholars stressed the positive impact of the Internet on political participation (i.e., optimists), while others minimised its mobilising power, emphasising its tendency to reinforce existing participatory trends (i.e., normalisers) or highlighting its limited or even negative influence on political participation (i.e., pessimists). Similar findings also emerged in relation to social networking Web sites (SNSs), digital platforms that have been the subject of much research in recent years. This paper discusses how two assumptions characterising many studies focusing on the Internet, SNSs and political participation have contributed to the contradictory findings produced by optimists, pessimists and normalisers. The first assumption is the consideration of political participation as an activity aimed exclusively at affecting governments’ actions, either directly or indirectly. This conceptualisation has arguably prevented scholars from grasping the multidimensional nature of political participation and from assessing how the influence of the Internet on this phenomenon can vary according to the different types of political activity. The second assumption is the perception of the Internet as a homogeneous platform and an over-generalised notion of Internet usage. This, in turn, has led researchers to concentrate on the online/off-line distinction and to overlook the impact of different digital tools and various usage practices. This paper argues for a shift in the ways political participation, Internet and SNSs usage are conceptualised and operationalised in academia. It suggests moving away from the polarised debate between optimists, pessimists and normalisers, and adopting a more differential approach through which examining the effects of digital technologies on political participation.

Author Biography

Isidoropaolo Casteltrione, Queen Margaret University

Paolo has a Bachelor Degree in “Communication Sciences†and an Honours Degree in “Communication, Advertising and PR†obtained respectively at the Universitá Suor Orsola Benincasa (2007) and Edinburgh Napier University (2009). Since September 2010 he is a PhD student at Queen Margaret University and he is now in the very final year of his doctorate. His research project investigates the impact of Facebook on citizens’ political participation in Italy and United Kingdom. In particular, it aims to establish how different forms of political participation (mobilisation vs communication activities) have been influenced by the rise of this social networking website and whether such a technology is able to promote the participation of citizens with limited levels of political engagement and participation. Paolo’s main research interests include social media, the Internet and information, media and political communication, and citizens’ political behaviours.




How to Cite

Casteltrione, I. (2015). The Internet, social networking Web sites and political participation research: Assumptions and contradictory evidence. First Monday, 20(3).