First- and second-level digital divides in Cuba: Differences in Internet motivation, access, skills and usage

Alexander van Deursen, Lila Solis Andrade


The digital divide is an important academic concern. Whereas the first generation of studies focused only on physical and material Internet access, more recent research has considered the importance of skills and usage gaps. This study seeks to bring to light meaningful insights into first and second levels of the digital divide in the special case of Cuba, which is characterized by a very restricted media environment. Results reveal that in an admittedly socialist country where inequality is very present, increased access to the Internet might particularly benefit those who are already in privileged positions.


digital inequality; digital divide; Cuba; Internet skills; Internet use; Internet access

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