First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 2,072 papers in 302 issues,&nbsp;written by 2,992 different authors over the past 25 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> ejv@uic.edu (Edward J. Valauskas) nrj@uic.edu (Nancy John) Thu, 01 Jul 2021 07:28:18 -0500 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A study of self-disclosure during the Coronavirus pandemic https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11555 <p>We study observed incidence of self-disclosure in a large set of tweets representing user-led English-language conversation about the Coronavirus pandemic. Using an unsupervised approach to detect voluntary disclosure of personal information, we provide early evidence that situational factors surrounding the Coronavirus pandemic may impact individuals’ privacy calculus. Text analyses reveal topical shift toward supportiveness and support-seeking in self-disclosing conversation on Twitter. We run a comparable analysis of tweets from Hurricane Harvey to provide context for observed effects and suggest opportunities for further study.</p> Taylor Blose, Prasanna Umar, Anna Squicciarini, Sarah Rajtmajer Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11555 Mon, 21 Jun 2021 10:56:08 -0500 Friends get vaccinated: The power of social media groups in the COVID-19 vaccination campaign https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11622 <p>In times of crisis the power of social media is reflected in its ability to influence social behavior and act quickly without bureaucratic mechanisms. During the Israeli COVID-19 vaccination campaign, social media groups were formed to collect, verify, and disseminate information about leftover vaccine doses. Masses of people quickly joined these groups, rushed to the vaccine locations, and shared real-time information with other group members. Based on 15 semi-structured interviews with group members and admins, we identified three motives for creating groups: making information accessible, the struggle against vaccine opponents, and a desire to return to life as it was before the pandemic. Rapid group joining has been described in terms of collective behavior and contagion theory.</p> Shlomit Manor, Tamar Israeli Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11622 Sun, 13 Jun 2021 19:29:41 -0500 An integrated framework for online news quality assurance https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11062 <p>This paper introduced a synthesized theoretical framework of online news quality assurance. The framework includes conceptual models of quality evaluation, value assessment, and intervention. The framework also provides typologies of user activities, information agents, and the relationships among them. The framework is grounded in prior frameworks of information quality and the analysis of two cases of large-scale online news aggregators: Google News and Facebook News. The framework can be used as a knowledge source to guide the design and evaluation of quality assurance processes of online news providers and aggregator ecosystems.</p> Besiki Stvilia Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11062 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 13:04:49 -0500 A framework for a data interest analysis of artificial intelligence https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11091 <p>This article makes a case for a data interest analysis of artificial intelligence (AI) that explores how different interests in data are empowered or disempowered by design. The article uses the EU High-Level Expert Group on AI’s Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI as an applied ethics approach to data interests with a human-centric ethical governance framework and accordingly suggests ethical questions that will help resolve conflicts between data interests in AI design</p> Gry Hasselbalch Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11091 Wed, 09 Jun 2021 08:45:50 -0500 Countering misinformation and disinformation during contentious episodes in a divided society: Tweeting the 2014 and 2015 Ardoyne parade disputes https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10303 <p>Whereas there has been much research into the manufacture of ‘fake news’ to sow disunity within liberal democracies, little is known about how information disorders affect deeply divided societies. This paper addresses that gap in the literature by exploring how digital media are used to share misinformation and disinformation during contentious public demonstrations in Northern Ireland. It does so by reviewing the literature on social media information flows during acute crisis events, and qualitatively exploring the role of Twitter in spreading misinformation and disinformation during the 2014 and 2015 Ardoyne parade disputes. Results indicate that visual disinformation, presumably shared to inflame sectarian tensions during the parade, was quickly debunked in information flows co-curated by citizens and professional journalists. Online misinformation and disinformation appeared to have minimal impact on events on the ground, although there was some evidence of belief echoes among tweeters who distrusted the information provided by mainstream media.</p> Paul Reilly Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10303 Fri, 11 Jun 2021 16:00:37 -0500 "Can I pin this?" The legal position of Pinterest and its users: An analysis of Pinterest's data storage policies and users' trust in the service https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11477 <p>It has been known for some time that in the digital environment enormous data streams are generated in which data is disclosed, forwarded, and stored. Once on the Internet, data is difficult to control. Often when creating and/or sharing content on the Internet, legal concerns about copyright and data protection might arise among the user as well as the platform provider. The same holds true for Pinterest, especially when considering that the main feature of the service is the possibility to re-pin (hence, collect and publicly share) content from external Web sites and from other users (<em>i.e.</em>, someone else’s creation). It is unclear how Pinterest handles the data of its users and external Web sites and protects it from misuse.</p> <p>It is also questionable whether the users familiarize themselves with terms of use, privacy policy, and the use of cookies by Pinterest as well as their legal awareness when using the service. This study contributes to resolve this uncertainty and to secure a more precise picture of how data is handled from the company’s point of view. For this purpose, an online survey with 365 participants was carried out. It was found that many users do not read the terms and conditions or guidelines but trust the service. In addition, an investigation on Pinterest’s guidelines has shown that a great deal of different data is stored and indirectly passed on to other companies. It was also found that users in the European economic area are not protected against copyright infringements when using Pinterest. This could lead to problems with state authority, at least for European users.</p> Thomas Kasakowskij, Regina Kasakowskij, Kaja J. Fietkiewicz Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11477 Thu, 17 Jun 2021 08:30:49 -0500 Do hotspots improve student performance? Evidence from a small-scale randomized controlled trial https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11467 <p>Much has been made about the “homework gap” that exists between students who have access to the Internet and those that do not. Policy-makers increasingly recognize the connectivity aspect of this issue but typically fail to acknowledge the importance of computer ownership. We use a small-scale randomized controlled trial (<em>n</em>=18) to test whether the provision of Internet access by itself — or in conjunction with a laptop computer — improves educational outcomes of alternative high-school students in the U.S. Our results suggest that the combination of Internet access and computer ownership is more effective than Internet access alone for positive educational outcomes.</p> Brian Whitacre, Amanda Higgins Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11467 Tue, 22 Jun 2021 14:07:14 -0500 Understanding cancel culture: Normative and unequal sanctioning https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10891 <p>Cancel culture is a phenomenon where individuals transgressing norms are called out and ostracised on social media and other venues by members of the public. While its effects are decried by some and its existence denied by others, the processes that shape cancel culture are misunderstood. In this article, I argue that cancellation can only occur if participating third parties with oversight over transgressing individuals perform sanctions. Furthermore, I explore how cancel culture affects people unequally by looking at the phenomenon known as the Karens. Using social normative theories, I evaluate how women affected by cancellation are facing misogyny through cancel culture.</p> Hervé Saint-Louis Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10891 Wed, 23 Jun 2021 17:40:35 -0500 Micro-celebrities from the North: Young North Korean defectors’ vlogging on YouTube https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11565 <p>By analyzing YouTube channels of young North Korean defectors, this article examines the cultural meanings of social media in these marginalized young people’s resettled lives. The article focuses on four YouTube channels managed by four young North Korean defectors living in South Korea. The four channels show how defectors, a majority of whom remain almost invisible in the South Korean public sphere, use digital platforms to display their identity as real people. Moreover, these channels involve digital storytelling of how the defectors negotiate their inter-Korean identities and interact with South Korean viewers. Furthermore, the four YouTube channels reveal how creative labor is professionalized and incorporated into the digital attention economy. This article suggests that, with some restrictions, such as restrictive technological affordances and profit-seeking algorithm, digital platforms allow defector youth to engage with social media storytelling and question the dominant representation of defectors.</p> Kyong Yoon Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11565 Thu, 24 Jun 2021 17:06:37 -0500 Income or inconvenience? Digital video advertising adoption lags among U.S. community newspapers https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10561 <p>This study reviews diffusion of video and video advertising on the Web sites of 400 community news outlets in the United States. Results suggest that while a significant number of community news outlets publish editorial videos online, video advertising lags behind larger publications. The study argues that elements such as circulation and size of a media corporation have little influence on the development and use of video and video advertising on community media Web sites in the U.S.</p> Burton Speakman, Michael Carey Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10561 Sat, 26 Jun 2021 09:34:41 -0500 Standard setting organizations and open source communities: Partners or competitors? https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10806 <p>Standardization serves a as a means to improve overall quality of life through the economies of scale gained from the pervasive adoption of technical solutions. It enables competition by facilitating interoperability between products of different vendors. The wider open source community develops free and open source software (FOSS) in a global upstream/downstream model that similarly benefits society as a public good. FOSS and standards setting organizations (SSOs) are both instruments causing standardizing effects. Innovators and policy-makers assume that a mutually beneficial collaboration between them is desirable. However, their exact relationship is not fully understood, especially when and how FOSS and SSOs complement each other, or displace each other as competitors. To be able to compare FOSS and SSOs, our study develops a phase model of standardization that is applicable to both approaches, and applies this model to compare the strengths and weaknesses of FOSS and SSOs against common opportunities and threats in the ICT sector. Based on qualitative expert interviews with FOSS and SSO representatives, the synthesis of the separate results support conclusions from a product, a process and a societal perspective. The study identifies <em>cost of change</em> as a key determinant for the efficacy of each approach. It concludes that FOSS and SSOs create complementary products, compete for efficiency of the standardization process, and are both independent and complementary standardization instruments available to industry and influenceable by policy-makers. The paper closes with a discussion of possible implications relevant to businesses, the wider open source community, SSOs and policy-makers.</p> Mirko Boehm, Davis Eisape Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10806 Mon, 28 Jun 2021 07:21:04 -0500