First Monday <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 2,041 papers in 299 issues,&nbsp;written by 2,940 different authors over the past 24 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> (Edward J. Valauskas) (Nancy John) Thu, 01 Apr 2021 06:11:28 -0500 OJS 60 Introduction to the special issue of Shame, Shaming and Online Image Sharing <p>This special issue coedited by Gaby David and Amparo Lasén, compiles 13 articles that explore the articulation of contemporary affective and digital cultures, regarding shame and shaming associated with online image sharing. The convergence of social structures, social norms and digital affordances shapes the vulnerability of different social groups into shame and modulates the potential of that experienced shame to exert a pedagogic and productive effect.</p> Amparo Lasén, Gaby David Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Thu, 04 Mar 2021 10:28:44 -0600 A meta-analysis review of mobile image sharing <p>Usually, we share what we are not ashamed of. The purpose of this review article is to undertake a meta-analysis of articles which have explored and sought to clarify ways in which mobile image sharing occurs. Firstly, I provide an outline and introductory contextualization. Secondly, I reintroduce a corpus of 13 key articles from the prehistory of smartphones (2002–2008). These papers are early conceptualizations and taxonomies that theorize on the sharing of mobile photos. They are analyzed relative to Lasswell’s (1948) communication model. In this context, this model provides theoretical cues in a more recent context to questions such as: when, how, and why do people share their mobile photos and what happens when they do so. The relevance of revising early conceptualizations not only helps understanding how mobile sharing practices can be theorized and understood, but also contributes and strengthens an analysis of shame and share.</p> Gaby David Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sun, 07 Mar 2021 15:36:04 -0600 Men seeking women: Awkwardness, shame, and other affective encounters with dating apps <p>This paper draws on qualitative research conducted with cis men aged 18–35, who used dating apps to meet women both before and during COVID-19 lockdown. Men in our study — which sought to better understand the aspects of app use that make young people feel safer or less safe — offered affectively loaded accounts of app use, which featured racialized and gendered experiences of ‘awkwardness’, shame, and contempt. Our analysis engages with Bollen and McInnes’ concept of ‘sexual choreographies’, which focused on the inter-affective and embodied aspects of cis gay men’s sexual learning practices as a means of reframing our thinking around the ways cis men who date women engage with dating app technologies and cultures. Drawing on Elspeth Probyn’s theorization of shame as a pedagogically productive affect, we argue that the affect-response of shame-humiliation can be turned to a productive, self-reflexive opportunity for improving gendered experiences of app use.</p> Kath Albury, Anthony McCosker, Clifton Evers Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Tue, 09 Mar 2021 13:22:54 -0600 Shaming alone: Living alone, shame and masculinity in digitally mediated communications <p>The analysis of shame, understood as a basic emotion that articulates social relationships, affords insight into the embodied experience of social processes. This paper presents the preliminary results of a research study focusing on how this emotion operates in the relationships and experiences of middle-aged (34–45 years) heterosexual men living alone in Madrid (Spain). We are particularly interested in exploring how shame intercedes when these men challenge or fail to fully adapt to the norms of adult romantic relationships and social expectations regarding having a stable partner. Our analysis aims to characterize this population group and describe how they use instant messaging groups and online dating apps. We focus on how shame is articulated in these interactions and the effects this has on men’s subjectivity and self-image, in order to explore the different ways in which they activate and modulate expressions of modern-day masculinity. In short, we suggest that circuits of shame trigger certain forms of subjection which clearly emerge in mediated communications, an arena in which, in the case of men who live alone, the rupture with the social norm is defensively re-worked, inverting the sense of self and embodying a set of tensions and ambivalences.</p> Antonio Agustín García, Carlos López Carrasco Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Wed, 10 Mar 2021 15:00:52 -0600 "My first selfie": Experimenting with shame and visibility <p>This article investigates everyday experimentation with shame and visibility in self-photography sharing on digital platforms. Based on empirical data produced in ethnographic research on selfie practice, I discuss the ways in which this type of practice is gradually becoming common place through a learning trajectory related to moments of exposure and shame. The objective is to analyze shame and visibility as practical differences that lead the research participants, each in their own way, to experience a development of exposure, learning, situated performances and impression management. Following a pragmatic perspective, the proposal is not to treat shame as a personal characteristic, or to identify what is visible or not in image sharing, but to treat them as experience. Through ethnographic work on participants’ photographic routines, I demonstrate that shame is part of the daily construction of the selfie as a practice. This is also observable, starting from the participants’ first selfies, when understanding selfie practice as an experimentation and negotiation capable of becoming present in the trajectory of conformation of this kind of image as a form of interaction with the other.</p> Leonardo Pastor Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Thu, 11 Mar 2021 12:48:30 -0600 Haunting shame and haunted bodies: Mixed feelings and entangled times in the online sharing of personal images <p>Taking photos of oneself and sharing them on social media or instant messaging apps is a practice haunted by shame. Although both media and popular wisdom view it as a simple exercise in narcissism and vanity, research into this practice shows contradictions, ambivalence, and tensions. Drawing on an empirical study carried out with young adults in Madrid, we explore the ambivalence, or “conflicting desires” as one interviewee put it, associated with affective and attention economies involved in this practice. Despite being a common, everyday activity, taking photos of oneself, seeing oneself in them, and sharing them generates mixed feelings, ranging from pleasure at seeing and playing around with one’s image, to estrangement and disquiet. We analyze how different kinds of shame are elicited. We also explore the time entanglement of both shame and the sharing of personal images online, in which memories of the past are intertwined with forms of continuity and discontinuity between the past and the present, and with the expectation of what will be remembered in the future.</p> Amparo Lasén, Héctor Puente Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sat, 13 Mar 2021 08:33:51 -0600 Screenshot, save, share, shame: Making sense of new media through screenshots and public shame <p>This article engages in a qualitative thematic analysis of media discourse about two prominent cases involving screenshots and public shame: the story of Amanda Todd, a Canadian teenager who took her own life after years of cyberbullying facilitated by screenshots; and the story of Anthony Weiner, the New York U.S. Congressman whose political career crumbled after screenshots revealed extramarital flirtations. It shows how screenshots violated the assumed boundaries of media environments, and in doing so prompted moments of public sense-making around new media. By focusing on cases where public shaming collides with the introduction of new media technologies, this article also offers an opportunity to understand how public spectacles of emotion, specifically of shame, shape new media technologies’ meanings and uses.</p> Frances Corry Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Mon, 15 Mar 2021 20:25:24 -0500 Shameless dicks: On male privilege, dick pic scandals, and public exposure <p>Academic debates on shame and the involuntary networked circulation of naked pictures have largely focused on instances of hacked accounts of female celebrities, on revenge porn, and interconnected forms of slut-shaming. Meanwhile, dick pics have been predominantly examined as vehicles of sexual harassment within heterosexual contexts. Taking a somewhat different approach, this article examines leaked or otherwise involuntarily exposed dick pics of men of notable social privilege, asking what kinds of media events such leaked data assemble, how penises become sites of public interest and attention, and how these bodies may be able to escape circuits of public shaming. By focusing on high-profile incidents on an international scale during the past decade, this article moves from the leaked shots of male politicians as governance through shaming to body-shaming targeted at Harvey Weinstein, to Jeff Bezos’s refusal to be shamed through his hacked dick pic, and to an accidentally self-published shaft shot of Lars Ohly, a Swedish politician, we examine the agency afforded by social privilege to slide through shame rather than be stuck in it. By building on feminist media studies and affect inquiry, we attend to the specificities of these attempts to shame, their connections to and disconnections from slut-shaming, and the possibilities and spaces offered for laughter within this all.</p> Susanna Paasonen, Jenny Sundén Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Wed, 17 Mar 2021 11:29:25 -0500 The rhythms of shame in digital sexual assault: Rhythmic resistance and the repeated assault <p>The non-consensual distribution of intimate images is a highly mediated kind of sexual violence. This article shows how data persistence and shareability constitute victim experiences of digital sexual assault as ‘repeated assaults’; as recurring instances of exposure and shaming facilitated by mediated rhythms and circulation. I also show how the participants of this study, young women victimised by digital assault, managed to create stability and resist the rhythms of their assault by modifying their social media presence and politicising their experiences.</p> Signe Uldbjerg Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Thu, 18 Mar 2021 06:40:31 -0500 Shame, shaming and economy: A theory of image-based sexual abuse within different online sharing environments <p>Since 2014, non-consensual sharing of intimate images online has gained attention in the scientific community. Little literature exists on why and how perpetrators undertake these activities. This paper provides a theoretical and conceptual typology for different forms of image-based sexual abuse that unfold online within two different sharing environments: 1) an acquaintance-based environment; and, 2) an organized, anonymous environment. The empirical data consist of nine qualitative interviews with Danish perpetrators (aged 15–25 years) from both sharing environments and 12 months of extensive digital ethnography on dark Web pages. Our findings suggest that digital sexual abuse can be conceptualized in relation to two factors, namely, 1) the market structure of the activity; and, 2) the sharers’ feelings of acknowledged and unacknowledged shame. We find that especially sharers from organized, anonymous environments show signs of unacknowledged shame through shaming exposed ones, while sharers from acquaintance-based environments retrospectively acknowledge shame by recognizing the negative consequences their sharing praxis had to the abused.</p> Kathrine Elmose Jørgensen, Jakob Demant Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sat, 20 Mar 2021 11:39:52 -0500 Ashamed of shaming? Stories of managing, deflecting, and acknowledging shame after committing image-based sexual abuse <p>While a range of studies examine what drives people to nonconsensually distribute sexual images, there is little research on what they feel after having shamed someone online. Do image-sharers feel any shame themselves? Using narrative criminology, we analyze their statements during police investigations to examine if and how they manage shame. We find that many stories about committing image-based sexual abuse deny responsibility, neutralize actions, and deflect blame onto victims. This supports previous qualitative research that offenders are so absorbed by male bonding and a need to control and objectify women that they are incapable of feeling shame after image-based sexual abuse. However, we also find that nearly as many stories about nonconsensual sharing focus on expressing shame for having lost control, admitting to having caused harm, and vowing to lead better lives in the future. These statements describe nonconsensual sexual image sharing as accidental, thoughtless, or impulsive, which supports some previous survey research. Our findings suggest that Internet researchers studying online abuse might pay greater attention to shame management, including how people blame digital technology for harmful behavior. We conclude that restorative justice processes could potentially help people who have committed image-based abuse acknowledge shame and try to repair the harm.</p> Sidsel K. Harder, Amy A. Hasinoff Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sun, 21 Mar 2021 22:29:17 -0500 Selfies or self-development? Humanitarians of Tinder (HoT) and online shaming as a moral community <p><em>Humanitarians of Tinder</em> (<em>HoT</em>) is a meme account found on Tumblr and Facebook that aggregates screen captures of Tinder profiles wherein users have posted photos of themselves participating in volunteer tourism activities throughout the Global South. For example, many users’ photos depict themselves embracing racialized children in their arms or participating in rituals or traditional ceremonies in cultures to which they do not belong. In this article, I argue that <em>HoT</em> establishes a moral community by shaming these individuals for presumably relying on these images to attract dates, while not recognizing their own complicity in colonial structures such as the volunteer tourism industry. Using strategies of humour to mock or deride these Tinder users for their actions as well as their appearances, <em>HoT</em> and its commentors engage in practices of digital vigilantism that seek to punish individuals for their behaviour, rather than the organizations and industries that structure these experiences. With this in mind, I demonstrate how Tinder users’ photos replicate images in recruitment media that are designed to advertise volunteer tourism expeditions. I further question how online shaming acts as a political action motivated by solidarity that comes to replace other actions, like volunteering.</p> Nathaniel Laywine Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Wed, 24 Mar 2021 13:34:23 -0500 How to survive a public faming: Understanding "The Spiciest Memelord" via the temporal dynamics of involuntary celebrification <p>Online public shaming has gained recent popular and academic attention as the tools of networked life are used to enforce societal norms against perceived deviant behavior. However, these acts of non-consensual identity formation do not necessarily need to be negative in nature. Indeed, similar dynamics can occur when an individual’s behavior aligns with societal expectations — a positive incident of involuntary celebrification, which we call “public faming”. These public famings remain understudied within celebrity and microcelebrity studies, despite the fact that more and more ordinary people are being suddenly propelled to short-lived meme fame. This paper seeks to understand the effect on individuals who are non-consensually elevated into the public eye by expanding our understanding of celebrification beyond a simple linear progression from not-famous to microcelebrity to celebrity. As a case study for this new framework, the author performs an autoethnography of her own experience from winning a trivia game show with an Internet-savvy answer, simultaneously giving extremely fleeting mainstream televised fame and viral internet fame. Our new framework of celebrity temporal dynamics allows us to not only understand how a person’s identity can be transformed into a media object subjected to corporations’ and strangers’ manipulations. We also introduce the tool of “radical reciprocity” to help victims of public faming understand potential paths for them to reclaim their narrative.</p> Lillian Chin Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Thu, 25 Mar 2021 12:41:09 -0500 Shamelessly cute: Understanding gender ambiguous identity performances via “The Desi Bombshell” Snapchat video selfies <p>Indigenous Pakistani transgenders — <em>khwaja sira</em> — employ gender ambiguous identity performances as a resistance tactic against politics of shame. This article explores how a tactical performance of a gender ambiguous identity portrayed via Snapchat’s cute animal lenses can subvert the culture of gendered shaming. Drawing on two feminist resistance tactics: performative shamelessness and weaponized/agentic cuteness, I investigate how Snapchat’s animal lenses can be used to achieve a subversive effect as identified in the case of “The Desi Bombshell” — a fictive online persona. Through close reading and content analysis of “Desi Bombshell” video selfies, I propose the concept of shamelessly cute. I argue that a shamelessly cute, gender ambiguous performance is a novel resistance tactic on social media as it explicitly displays a clumsy, Snapchat enabled identity, while implicitly it challenges the Pakistani politics of shame from within its culture by reworking indigenous practices and gestures.</p> Fatima Aziz Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sat, 27 Mar 2021 00:07:19 -0500