First Monday <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 2,007 papers in 296 issues,&nbsp;written by 2,887 different authors over the past 24 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> (Edward J. Valauskas) (Nancy John) Fri, 01 Jan 2021 07:54:26 -0600 OJS 60 Shades of hatred online: 4chan duplicate circulation surge during hybrid media events <p>The 4chan /pol/ platform is a controversial online space on which a surge in hate speech has been observed. While recent research indicates that events may lead to more hate speech, empirical evidence on the phenomenon remains limited. This study analyzes 4chan /pol/ user activity during the mass shootings in Christchurch and Pittsburgh and compares the frequency and nature of user activity prior to these events. We find not only a surge in the use of hate speech and anti-Semitism but also increased circulation of duplicate messages, links, and images and an overall increase in messages from users who self-identify as “white supremacist” or “fascist” primarily voiced from English-speaking IP-based locations: the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Great Britain. Finally, we show how these hybrid media events share the arena with other prominent events involving different agendas, such as the U.S. midterm elections. The significant increase in duplicates during the hybrid media events in this study is interpreted beyond their memetic logic. This increase can be interpreted through what we refer to as activism of hate. Our findings indicate that there is either a group of dedicated users who are compelled to support the causes for which shooting took place and/or that users use automated means to achieve duplication.</p> Asta Zelenkauskaite, Pihla Toivanen , Jukka Huhtamäki, Katja  Valaskivi Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Sun, 06 Dec 2020 08:44:45 -0600 Social media surveillance, LGBTQ refugees and asylum <p>In recent years, social media content has played an increasingly significant role in the legal processing of asylum claims in Europe. This article investigates the role of such content in Danish asylum cases by examining verdicts from the years 2015–2019. In particular, it examines cases relating to LGBTQ refugees (<em>i.e.</em>, asylum seekers who claim asylum on the basis of sexual orientation and/or gender identity) and how their credibility — and thus their ability to obtain asylum — is determined, in part, by their social media profiles. The article shows how posts and comments on social media platforms are used to prove (or disconfirm) LGBTQ identity, and how migration authorities expect refugees’ online behaviour to align with their expectations of ‘genuine’ LGBTQ persons. Finally, the article argues that the current use of biometric digital data traces to identify refugees, govern borders and manage migration has been intensified by the application of social media content in asylum proceedings.</p> Rikke Andreassen Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Thu, 10 Dec 2020 12:24:05 -0600 The impact of gender and political affiliation on trolling <p>Political trolling on social media platforms is more common than ever before, attracting media and scholarly attention. We examined if trolling target’s gender and ideology impact the extent of trolling towards their tweet, based on content analysis of 3,000 Twitter comments. We found both main and interaction effects of gender and political affiliation on trolling, specifically: tweets by female politicians were trolled more than tweets by male; tweets by Republicans were trolled more than tweets by Democrats; and tweets by male Democrats were trolled less than tweets by all other politicians.</p> Pnina Fichman, Maren W. McClelland Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Fri, 11 Dec 2020 17:09:17 -0600 Web site blocking as a proxy of policy alignment <p>This work introduces a new metric of policy alignment between states: Web site blocking. Intuitively, we measure the degree to which states block similar content. This metric speaks to the flow of information in the digital layer of international politics, an element of international trade and cooperation that existing metrics fail to capture. In addition, our measure can be constantly scraped and updated, offering a higher temporal resolution than existing metrics. Our work suggests a link between Internet governance and other issues in international relations (<em>e.g.</em>, trade). Since our metric can be updated in real time, future work could use our metric to detect geopolitical shifts more rapidly than would otherwise be possible.</p> Nick Merrill, Steven Weber Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Sat, 12 Dec 2020 21:29:08 -0600 Effects of social media motivations on women’s psychological well-being in Pakistan <p>Social media use has been increasing apace regardless of geographical and economic boundaries. In particular, its penetration has occurred more rapidly in developing and low-income countries with abounding health and psychological disadvantages. Given the understanding that women are more prone to psychological disorders than men, the current research is an effort to examine social media motives and subsequent effects on the psychological well-being of women social media users in Pakistan. The study is based on an online survey conducted to ascertain as to what extent social media use contributes to women’s psychological well-being or otherwise. The survey recorded responses of 240 women selected through purposive sampling technique. SEM-PLS analysis of the collected data revealed that social media usage plays a meaningful role in women’s psychological health. However, results exposed that Pakistani women, under the traditional patriarchal social pressure, not only have to observe cultural norms in online practices but are also forced to adhere to socially constructed gender roles in online spaces. The mixed results suggest conducting extensive research for a deeper insight into the role of social media in psychological well-being of women in other low-income countries.</p> Iffat Ali Aksar, Mahmoud Danaee, Huma Maqsood, Amira Firdaus Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Thu, 17 Dec 2020 04:26:49 -0600 What do creators and viewers owe each other? Microcelebrity, reciprocity, and transactional tingles in the ASMR YouTube community <p>ASMR has skyrocketed to international popularity in recent years, and a thriving community and cultural exists around the phenomenon on YouTube. However, misunderstandings about the practice persist, and little is known about this community in terms of its texts and practices. This research draws on a multiyear digital ethnography into the ASMR culture and community on YouTube, where I analyze how microcelebrity, the attention economy, platform-specific dynamics, and content creation merge. Drawing on extant research that identifies reciprocity as a key cultural dynamic on YouTube, I argue reciprocity in the ASMR YouTube community, as well as the relationship between creator and viewer, can best be understood as transactional tingles: relaxation in exchange for likes, clicks, and views within the attention economy. Transactional tingles is also a contemporary blending of more traditional art patronage and dealer-critic systems, which offers insights into the role viewers and platforms play in content creation, digital labor, and precarity.</p> Jessica Maddox Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Fri, 18 Dec 2020 12:32:23 -0600 Police in social media: To protect and share? <p>This article explores how senior police officers perceive the presence of the police on social media. While interviewees argued that the police have a “duty of presence” on social media, they also reported that it should focus on information-provision and image-enhancement on the police’s home turf, avoiding confrontations in “external” social media arenas. In addition to its contribution to understanding perceptions of social media in public organizations by collecting data from “elite interviewees,” this paper also makes a theoretical contribution by introducing <em>internal</em> and <em>external</em> social media arenas as significant variables that assist in understanding public organization social media usage. Building on Mergel’s (2013) model of modes of operation of public organizations in social media (representation, engagement, and networking), this study demonstrates that representation prevails in internal social media arenas, while networking is more characteristic of <em>external</em> social media arenas.</p> Azi Lev-on, Gal Yavetz Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Sat, 19 Dec 2020 15:40:28 -0600 Discursive strategies for disinformation on WhatsApp and Twitter during the 2018 Brazilian presidential election <p>This paper aims to analyze and compare the discursive strategies used to spread and legitimate disinformation on Twitter and WhatsApp during the 2018 Brazilian presidential election. Our case study is the disinformation campaign used to discredit the electronic ballot that was used for the election. In this paper, we use a mixed methods approach that combined critical discourse analysis and a quantitative aggregate approach to discuss a dataset of 53 original tweets and 54 original WhatsApp messages. We focused on identifying the most used strategies in each platform. Our results show that: (1) messages on both platforms used structural strategies to portray urgency and create a negative emotional framing; (2) tweets often framed disinformation as a “rational” explanation; and, (3) while WhatsApp messages frequently relied on authorities and shared conspiracy theories, spreading less truthful stories than tweets.</p> Raquel Recuero, Felipe Soares, Otávio Vinhas Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Mon, 21 Dec 2020 18:32:09 -0600 Presence and specificity of the political communication of the Catalan independence leaders on Twitter in the 2017 regional elections <p>The regional elections in Catalonia held on 21 December 2017 received wide media coverage, far beyond Spanish media, due to separatist tension in that territory and was one of the main topics in most of the world’s media. Within this process social networks, especially Twitter, obtained crucial relevance given the interest aroused by the political leaders’ publications, since in those elections the debate transcended the usual ideological divisions of right and left and became a struggle between constitutionalists and separatists. This paper analyses the presence and influence of the main candidates of the Catalan political parties on Twitter. To achieve this, a mainly quantitative, mixed methodology based on big data was carried out where all the tweets issued by the candidates during the electoral campaign were analysed.</p> Javier Bustos Díaz, Francisco Javier Ruiz del Olmo, Miguel Nazario Moreno Velasco Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Wed, 23 Dec 2020 12:04:13 -0600 Chief information officers’ perceptions about artificial intelligence <p>This article presents a study about artificial intelligence (AI) policy based on the perceptions, expectations, and challenges/opportunities given by chief information officers (CIOs). In general, publications about AI in the public sector relies on experiences, cases, ideas, and results from the private sector. Our study stands out from the need of defining a distinctive approach to AI in the public sector, gathering primary (and comparative) data from different countries, and assessing the key role of CIOs to frame federal/national AI policies and strategies. This article reports three research questions, including three dimensions of analysis: (1) perceptions regarding to the concept of AI in the public sector; (2) expectations about the development of AI in the public sector; and, (3) challenges and opportunities of AI in the public sector. This exploratory study presents the results of a survey administered to federal/national ministerial government CIOs in ministries of Mexico and Spain. Our descriptive statistical (and exploratory) analysis provides an overall approach to our dimensions, exploratory answering the research questions of the study. Our data supports the existence of different governance models and policy priorities in different countries. Also, these results might inform research in this same area and will help senior officials to assess the national AI policies actually in process of design and implementation in different national/federal, regional/state, and local/municipal contexts.</p> J. Ignacio Criado, Rodrigo Sandoval-Almazan, David Valle-Cruz , Edgar A. Ruvalcaba-Gómez Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Sat, 26 Dec 2020 20:41:07 -0600 The need for addressing multilingualism, ambiguity and interoperability for visual resources management across metadata platforms <p>The digitization of visual resources and the creation of corresponding metadata that meets the criteria of clarity and interoperability, while also approaching the needs of the multilingual Web, are pressing concerns. Because visual resources make up a significant percentage of digital information, this paper focuses on the aforementioned concerns and proposes ways to address them, including swift progression and adoption of cohesive, multi-user, multilingual metadata standardization to improve digital access and to allow all descriptive image metadata to be approachable and translatable. We offer some recommendations such as those involved in visual resource management moving away from using primarily the English writing system based metadata schemas in order to provide flexible lexicon in non-Roman languages, which can easily be recognized and interpreted by both monolingual and multilingual users alike as well as facilitate digital metadata interoperability.</p> Denise Russo, Abebe Rorissa Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Mon, 28 Dec 2020 07:34:12 -0600