First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 1,980 papers in 293 issues,&nbsp;written by 2,827 different authors over the past 24 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> ejv@uic.edu (Edward J. Valauskas) nrj@uic.edu (Nancy John) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Reclaiming HIV/AIDS in digital media studies https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10517 <p>This article puts forward an argument for the importance of HIV/AIDS to digital studies, focusing, focusing on the North American context. Tracing conjoined histories and presents makes clear that an HIV-informed approach to digital media studies offers methods for attuning to marginalized media practices that should be central to interrogating the politics, relations, and aesthetics of digital media. Artist Kia LaBeija’s <em>#Undetectable</em> (2016) is closely analyzed in order to explicate some of HIV’s potential resonances for digital studies, including viral media and justice-based responses to surveillance. We then propose a methodological framework for centering HIV in understandings of three key concepts for the field: (1) networks; (2) social media and platforms; and, (3) digital history. We argue that HIV-positive users bring expertise to navigating digital infrastructures that can surveil and harm while also facilitating pleasure and connection. Such tension provides models of response that publics need to insist upon more just digital tools and structures for our unfolding present.</p> Marika Cifor, Cait McKinney Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10517 Mon, 07 Sep 2020 11:50:42 -0500 Surveillance, stigma & sociotechnical design for HIV https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10274 <p>Online dating and hookup platforms have fundamentally changed people’s day-to-day practices of sex and love — but exist in tension with older social and medicolegal norms. This is particularly the case for people with HIV, who are frequently stigmatized, surveilled, ostracized, and incarcerated because of their status. Efforts to make intimate platforms “work” for HIV frequently focus on user-to-user interactions and disclosure of one’s HIV status but elide both the structural forces at work in regulating sex and the involvement of the state in queer lives. In an effort to foreground these forces and this involvement, we analyze the approaches that intimate platforms have taken in designing for HIV disclosure through a content analysis of 50 current platforms. We argue that the implicit reinforcement of stereotypes about who HIV is or is not a concern for, along with the failure to consider state practices when designing for data disclosure, opens up serious risks for HIV-positive and otherwise marginalized people. While we have no panacea for the tension between disclosure and risk, we point to bottom-up, communal, and queer approaches to design as a way of potentially making that tension easier to safely navigate.</p> Calvin Liang, Jevan Alexander Hutson, Os Keyes Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10274 Thu, 10 Sep 2020 12:04:12 -0500 AIDS infrastructures, queer networks: Architecting the critical path https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10403 <p>This essay pursues how HIV/AIDS and digital media transform one another’s historiographies. Working with the archive of activist Kiyoshi Kuromiya (1943–2000), the essay considers the role of AIDS organizing in the history of the Internet, and in establishing recursive relations between media formats. Kuromiya’s early adoption of Internet technology centered the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS, incarcerated people, and people of color to access vital information for community formation and survival. Tracing the unlikely collaboration between Kuromiya and techno-futurist architect R. Buckminster Fuller (1885–1983), which culminated in Kuromiya’s founding of the Critical Path AIDS Project, this essay interrogates the term “adjuvant,” which Fuller borrowed from immunological discourse to describe their co-authorship. Anchored in a critical engagement with the metaphor of the adjuvant — an agent aiding immunological response — this essay elaborates the digital infrastructures underwriting a blueprint for community building, offering a prehistory of digital queer care networks. In conclusion, the essay meditates on the role of curation in theorizing the temporality of AIDS and its ongoing histories.</p> Joan Lubin, Jeanne Vaccaro Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10403 Mon, 14 Sep 2020 21:09:45 -0500 How to build an HIV out of care watch list: Remaking HIV surveillance in the era of treatment as prevention https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10295 <p>This paper describes how state and local departments of public health (DPHs) in the United States build HIV “out of care” lists using “Data to Care” guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). DPHs use these lists in prevention outreach and contact tracing. DPHs build out of care lists using data sent to them by laboratories every time a clinician orders routine HIV-related bloodwork for a patient. If a person does not report bloodwork, or shows poor results, they can be placed on an out of care list. The processes DPHs use to construct and refine lists show how HIV care data changed during the 2010s, transforming from a class of sensitive information with many restrictions governing its exchange into a class of data that is accompanied by a mandate for public health actors to exchange and utilize it in a variety of programs. Re-uses of HIV care data for prevention follow confirmation that antiretroviral therapy for HIV is an effective way to prevent transmission, a paradigm called “treatment as prevention.” DPH personnel enhance lists by conducting investigations, matching lists against medical records, utilizing people search tools such as LexisNexis, searching social media platforms, and other methods. This can include collaboration with correctional and law enforcement agencies — a concern in jurisdictions where HIV nondisclosure is criminalized. Public health re-uses of HIV data are done without consent. This paper focuses on the labor and ethics of building HIV out of care lists, drawing on archival health policy data, fieldwork with the HIV/AIDS workforce in metropolitan Atlanta, and a literature review.</p> Stephen Molldrem Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10295 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 18:15:18 -0500 Watching and talking about AIDS: Analog tapes, digital cultures, and strategies for connection https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10283 <p>This paper is a conversation between activist videomaker Alexandra Juhasz and writer and organizer Theodore (ted) Kerr that explores the contemporary role of AIDS activist videos from the past.. Key to the text are ideas around history, technology, time, and community. Together they discuss and enact intergenerational dialogue, what to do with the imperfection of archives, and strategies for shared looking at the history of HIV through epochs. Their conversation is focused on a community created tape from, Bebashi — Transition to Hope, a Philadelphia non-profit.</p> Alexandra Juhasz, Theodore Kerr Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10283 Mon, 21 Sep 2020 20:02:59 -0500 SURVIVORS: Archiving the history of bulletin board systems and the AIDS crisis https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10290 <p>The history of the Internet and the history of the HIV/AIDS crisis are fundamentally intertwined. Because of the precarious nature of primary early Internet materials, however, documentation that reflects this relationship is limited. Here, we present and analyse an important document that offers considerable insight in this area: a full printout of the bulletin board system (BBS) discussion group “SURVIVORS.” Run by David Charnow, SURVIVORS operated as an “electronic support group” for members living with HIV/AIDS from 1987 to 1990. These dates represent a period of overlap between both the AIDS crisis in America and the use of BBSs as a predecessor to contemporary Internet technologies. The contents of SURVIVORS were printed by Charnow before his death in 1990 and later donated to the ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives. Through our discussion of these documents, we articulate the striking relationship between the SURVIVORS printout as a material document that preserves a digital past and the lives of those whose stories are contained within the printout. We argue that it is not only the content but indeed the precarious, shifting media format of the SURVIVORS printout, born digital and now preserved on paper, that gives it its meaning. Thirty years after his death, Charnow’s printout of SURVIVORS keeps a critical piece of the interrelated histories of HIV/AIDS and the Internet alive, while also raising valuable questions about the archiving of these histories.</p> Kathryn Brewster, Bonnie Ruberg Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10290 Tue, 22 Sep 2020 21:07:15 -0500 Online ‘barebacking’ community and the creation of ‘sex pig’ identities: Exploring affordances of a Web forum in celebrating sexual excess https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10259 <p>The Internet and HIV biomedical technologies are considered as significant technological advances underpinning “barebacking”, or condom-less anal sex among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Online chatrooms, discussion boards, and geosocial networking applications (“apps”) are regarded as having facilitated new opportunities to meet and connect with other barebackers. Virtual spaces enabled the proliferation of online discourses specific to barebacking, such as “bugchasing” and “giftgiving” to refer to the intentional spreading of HIV. While previous research focus on the metaphors used by bugchasers and giftgivers online, such studies lack analyses of other barebacking practices and identities beyond intentional seroconversion. This paper seeks to fill this gap by examining the affordances of a barebacking online community I call “Pigpen” in offering space for MSM to discuss various topics apart from intentional seroconversion: in particular, the emergence of “sex pigging”. Analyzing online forum discussions, I argue that Pigpen opens possibilities for reimagining sex pigging desires, identities, and practices that are intertwined and constituted by HIV prevention discourses and biomedical technologies. While sex pigging is associated with sexual excess, I demonstrate that limitless sex is practiced in a variety of ways: ranging from the eroticization of HIV and other STIs, to avoiding transmission by adapting some harm reduction strategies. Some sex pigs reappropriate the association of pigs with revulsion and taboo by reframing sexual excess as pleasurable and productive of feelings of freedom. By contrast, other sex pigs renegotiate risk and safety by incorporating risk minimization, giving rise to the possibility of “safer sex pigs”. Thus, sex pigging desires, identities, and practices are more complex than previously thought because they do not neatly fall into the category of irrationality and irresponsibility.</p> Emerich Daroya Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10259 Wed, 23 Sep 2020 16:14:08 -0500 We know Ryan White https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10276 <p>The video essay has transformative potential for digital archival practices. Our project knits together critical approaches to digital archival practices, creative interplay between objects and description, and an examination of Ryan White’s treatment by broadcast television news. Our contribution of a multimedia video essay and statement is intended to visualize the intellectual efforts of this <em>First Monday</em> issue. This written piece situates our video essay as a mode of inquiry into the fragmentation of a distributed digital archive, local cataloging and metadata practices, and how descriptive practices shape how we understand HIV/AIDS. We address the context for the WSJV News Collection at the Indiana University Libraries Moving Image Archive, describe the process and labor involved in creating this video essay, and consider its implications for digital archival practices.</p> Katherine Marie Morrison, Andy Uhrich Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10276 Thu, 24 Sep 2020 11:58:08 -0500 The digital rhetorics of AIDS denialist networked publics https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10273 <p>AIDS denialist publics congregate online, circulating discourses that dissent from mainstream health science, encouraging behaviors that cause unnecessary exposures and premature death. We offer “networked public analysis” as a means to leverage computational research methods to discover the texts that are important to networked publics. From a close reading of the core texts of an AIDS denialist networked public, we illustrate digital rhetorics characterized by empowering interactivity, offering control and stability to persons experiencing the existential suffering that can attend HIV+ diagnosis. We underscore the necessity of communication researchers, health care providers, scientists, and public health officials to consider the existential situations of AIDS denialist publics, which entangle denials of AIDS science with legitimate social anxieties.</p> Miles C. Coleman, Joy M. Cypher Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10273 Fri, 25 Sep 2020 20:21:26 -0500