Title Page and Publishers Page from "The Anatomy of Murder" by Sabine Hildebrandt, MD (2016).

 

 

Approval for reuse required from original publisher


 

 

The Pernkopf ControversyFurther discussions on the role of ethics in anatomy came much later when Pernkopf's atlas became a focal point of international debate. The popular Topographische Anatomie des Menschen was first published in 1937, with the first American edition published in 1963.[110] Surgeons valued its intricacy, as it contained detailed and extensively annotated color illustrations enhanced in quality by the beauty of the coloration, which was the product of an innovative printing technique.[111] The origins of the bodies in these illustrations were not publicly discussed until 1980, when physician Gerald Weissmann inquired into the political changes at the Vienna Medical School in 1938 and its new dean, Pernkopf.[112] David J. Williams, a professor of medical illustration, published the first detailed investigation into the background of the creation of the atlas in 1988. During a sabbatical in Vienna, Williams studied the more than 800 original paintings for the atlas and conducted interviews with Franz Batke, at that time the last living contributing artist to the atlas, from whom he had hoped to learn his painting technique. Williams learned from Batke that not only Pernkopf, but also illustrators Erich Lepier, Ludwig Schrott, Karl Endtresser, and Batke were either active members of the NSDAP (National Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) or participants in the war. Evidence of the illustrators' NS sympathies was visible in the first edition of the atlas: Lepier had added a swastika to his signature in some of the plates created between 1938 and 1945, while Endtresser signed the double "ss" in his name in the shape of the typical SS symbols and Batke shaped the 44 in the date 1944 like the SS runes. Williams also found evidence that the Viennese Anatomy Institute regularly received the bodies of victims of executions.

 

In 1995 Edzard Ernst, former faculty member at the Vienna Medical School, reported that Pernkopf, as dean of the medical faculty, had been personally responsible for the removal of all Jewish faculty members, spouses of Jews, and political dissidents, 153 of the total of 197 members of the medical faculty.[113] Ernst claimed that Pernkopf used material from children killed in a Viennese hospital in his atlas and bodies of executed persons for teaching purposes. In direct response to Ernst's publication, physicians Panusch and Briggs[114]asked their medical center to remove the Pernkopf atlas from circulation and entered into a discussion about the ethics of a continued publication of the atlas with the distributors of the atlas. Edward E. Hutton Jr., as spokesman for the publisher Waverly Inc. for the German subsidiary Urban and Schwarzenberg, stated that, in spite of their own inquiries into the matter, they continued publishing the Pernkopf atlas "because of its scientific merit and the fact that, to date, no concrete evidence exists to substantiate Pernkopf's use of cadavers originating from Nazi concentration camp victims," and that they tried to "separate Pernkopf, the man, from the work." [115] Hutton stated that the publisher supported the request for an inquiry conducted by the University of Vienna, put to the Austrian authorities and the publishers by the Israel Holocaust and Martyrs Remembrance Authority, Yad Vashem. Authors Howard Israel and William Seidelman reported these events [116], and supported Yad Vashem's demand for a commemoration of potential victims of NS terror and an acknowledgment documenting the history of Pernkopf in future editions of the atlas. This opinion was endorsed by Daniel Cutler, a medical illustrator at the University of Michigan.[117]

 

At this point in 1997, the president of the University of Vienna Alfred Ebenbauer[118]admitted for the first time publicly that the university, and specifically the department of anatomy, had systematically suppressed and even denied its NS (National Socialist) past, and that relevant investigations had not been performed. Ebenbauer, together with a number of new university faculty members from a younger generation without NS ties, explained that the attitude of the university had changed due to "increasing pressure from abroad" and a new political atmosphere in Austria after former chancellor Vranitzky's public recognition of Austria's responsibility for the events of 1938–45. They gave a preliminary report of the history as far as it was known, and announced a research project by the senate of the university named "The Anatomical Sciences 1938–1945." This was followed by a lively discussion in the general media.[119]

 

The senatorial project of the University of Vienna investigated two sets of circumstances: first, those dealing with the origin and destiny of the bodies used by Pernkopf; second, those concerning Pernkopf's political activity. The design of this project was based in part on the Tübingen project, which dealt with the history of the anatomical institute during the NS period at that university. The Vienna project revealed that throughout his tenure Pernkopf was actively involved in the acquisition of bodies for his institute. During the war the influx of bodies increased to such an extent that the anatomy institute's storage rooms sometimes became overfilled, and executions were postponed because of this. Pernkopf applied for an increase of the institute's budget for 1943 in order to handle the rising number of bodies.[120] The study further disclosed the origin of the bodies delivered to the anatomical institute from 1938 to 1945.[121] Among them were 3,964 unclaimed or, rarely, donated bodies from hospitals and geriatric and charitable institutions; about 7,000 bodies of fetuses and children, including miscarriages and premature and stillborn babies; and there were at least 1,377 bodies of executed persons, including eight Jews, who had been decapitated at the Vienna assize court or shot by the Gestapo at a rifle range. Due to incomplete documentation, it was impossible to obtain the exact number of all executed persons. There was no evidence that bodies from the concentration camp Mauthausen or the affiliated camp Gusen were brought to Vienna, but such bodies seem to have been transported to the anatomical institute at Graz. More than half of the executions had been carried out for political reasons, including 526 verdicts of "high treason." Of the bodies of the eight Jews, one was handed over to his family, while the other seven were delivered to the anatomical institute. The investigations of the anatomical collections at different institutes of the University of Vienna revealed the existence of specimens from NS victims that were then removed and interred in a grave of honor provided by the city of Vienna in 2012.[122] Previous findings encountered in Pernkopf's and Lepier's biographies were confirmed.[123]

 

After the war, Lepier continued his highly praised work as an anatomical illustrator, contributing to other popular atlases such as the Sobotta/ Becher atlas, [124] and the one by Carmine Clemente. Clemente initially used the Pernkopf plates, including those drawn by Lepier, for his own atlas. [125] Lepier received the title of professor in 1959 in recognition of his contribution to science. [126] About half of the original 791 illustrations in the Pernkopf atlas were created during the Nazi years; the other half either predated 1937 or were produced after 1945. Forty-one plates were definitely signed with dates from the Nazi period, and it is likely that at least some of the persons depicted were executed NS victims. For the remaining 350 plates the date of creation as well as the provenance of the bodies used as models is unclear. [127]

 

After the results of the Vienna Senatorial Project were disclosed, Howard Spiro, director of the Yale Program for Humanities in Medicine, felt that the "silence of words" had finally been broken. [128] Early reports on the NS activities in Austrian medical schools had not found a wide audience, with the exception of the controversy surrounding Heinrich Gross, the physician implicated in NS "euthanasia." [129] The critiques by Seidelman, Israel, and Weissmann concerning the lack of historical analysis of the origin of the Pernkopf atlas and its authors [130] created a "push from the other side of the Atlantic and from Yad Vashem" [131] that initiated a "belated [...] research into this shameful era." [132]

 

In addition to this impulse, several other factors contributed to a new openness for the discussion of the NS past and ethics in anatomy. Many scientists active during the NS period had died and the general political climate in Austria had changed, initiated by the international controversy in the 1980s surrounding former president Kurt Waldheim's NS affiliation. The country did not represent itself any longer only as a victim of the Nazi regime but also as a collaborator in NS crimes. [133] In addition, the ethical debate concerning body acquisition and demonstration had become very active in Germany among anatomists, philosophers, artists, lawyers, physicians, theologians, sociologists, and journalists following the controversial "Body World" exhibitions by Gunther von Hagens in the 1990s. [134]

 

The Pernkopf controversy also questioned whether it was ethical to continue to use the atlas, spurring many arguments. [135] On one side, detractors wanted the books removed from all libraries. [136] Arguments for complete banishment included, among other things, that fundamental evil contributed to the creation of the atlas; that nobody should profit from the exploitation of human life, especially of victims of the NS regime; that the active use of results from research by NS scientists could not justify the atrocities committed; that a work cannot be separated from its creator (thus if the creator is evil, the work is too); that the use of NS data might initiate society's slide down a "slippery slope" toward amorality; and that the atlas is easily replaceable by other anatomical atlases or more modern means of medical imaging. On the other side, supporters of the atlas argued for its continued use as a historical document, preferably in its original form (including the NS symbols), and with the addition of a historical note commenting on the origin of the work. These arguments included the opinion that good may derive from evil in providing new doctors with the means to perform better operations; that victims of the NS regime and their sacrifice are best honored by a continued use of the atlas; that publishing the atlas in its original form, including NS symbols and information about the historical context, can be used not only for the anatomical but also ethical and historical education of future physicians; that eliminating or suppressing books is a symptom of totalitarian systems; and that the atlas is a work of great aesthetic value.

 

On balance it seems justifiable to continue using Pernkopf's book under the condition that information on its historic background is made available at the time of use. To see the atlas as a masterwork of greatest aesthetic value or as the evil manifestation of NS science [137] seems to ascribe this book too much power. The atlas is neither of these things, but the product of an obsessive perfectionist who would have pursued his work under any political circumstances. Indeed, the first and the last parts of the atlas were not created during the time of the NS regime in Austria, but before and after it and under very different political and material circumstances. The atlas is still one of the best in terms of accuracy, showing levels of detail that are of direct relevance for the actual dissection process.

 

Pernkopf's story remains an object lesson for modern anatomy in that the inquiry into the sources of human bodies cannot be careful enough and that rigorous standards have to be formulated and followed. Meanwhile, the publisher has stopped printing the atlas, citing the possible use of NS victims in its creation as the reason for this decision. [138]


 

Notes

 

110. Second volume 1942, third volume 1952, fourth volume 1956-57, 1961; first American edition: Pernkopf 1963.

111. Williams 1988.

112. Weissmann 1985.

113.Mühlberger 1998b.

114. Panush and Briggs 1995; Panush 1996; Panush 1997

115. Hutton 1996.

116. Israel and Seidelman 1996; Israel and Seidelman 1997.

117. Cutler 1997.

118. Ebenbauer and Schutz 1997.

119. Examples: Michigan Daily Online 1997; McManus 1996; Williams 1999.

120.Mühlberger 1998a.

121. Malina and Spann 1999; Angetter 2000.

122.Malina and Spann 1999; Angetter 2000; Seidelman, personal communication

123.Malina 1997; Malina and Spann 1999; Abgetter 2000.

124. Ferner and Staubesand 1973; Atlas 2001.

125. Clemente 1975.

126. Urban and Schwarzenberg 1997.

127. Angetter 2000.

128. Spiro 1998.

129. Hubenstorf 2000; Neugebauer 1998.

130. Israel and Seidelman 1996 and 1997; Cutler 1997; Seidelman 1996; Seidelman 1999.

131. Holubar 2000.

132. Ebenbauer and Schütz 1997; Schütz et al. 1998; Malina and Spann 1999.

133. Ebenbauer and Schütz 1997.

134. Röbel and Wassermann 2004; Peuker and Schulz 2004; Wetz and Tag 2001

135. See Atlas 2001; Williams 1999; Field 1999; Marcuse 2002; Spiro 1998.

136. Panush and Briggs 1995.

137. Paterniti 2003.

138. Hubbard 2001; personal communication via electronic mail from the editorial director of Elsevier GmbH, Urban & Fischer Verlag, 9 August 2005.

 


 

Bibliography
Aly, Götz. 1987. "Das Posener Tagebuch des Anatomen Hermann Voss." In: Biedermann und Schreibtischtäter: Materialien zur deutschen Täter-Biographie, ed. Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, and Christian Pross, 15–66. Berlin: Rotbuch Verlag.

———. 1994. "The Posen Diaries of the Anatomist Hermann Voss." In: Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene, ed. Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, and Christian Pross, 99–155. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Anatomische Gesellschaft. 2012. "Awards." Accessed 7 May 2014.

Angetter, Daniela C. 2000. "Anatomical Science at University of Vienna 1938–45." Lancet 355: 1445–57.

 

Anonymous. 1945. "Kvinnor dödades för äggstocksexperiment: Svensk läkare fick hypofyser från halshuggna tyska fångar." Aftontidningen, 18 May.

 

Arias, Ingrid. 2004. "Entnazifizierung an der Wiener Medizinischen Fakultät: Bruch oder Kontinuität? Das Beispiel des Anatomischen Institutes." Zeitgeschichte 6(31): 339–69.

 

Atlas, Michel C. 2001. "Ethics and Access to Teaching Materials in the Medical Library: The Case of the Pernkopf Atlas." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89(1): 51–58.

 

Baader, Gerhard, and Ulrich Schultz. 1987. Medizin und Nationalsozialismus. Tabuisierte Vergangenheit-Ungebrochene Tradition? Dokumentation des Gesundheitstages Berlin 1980. 3rd ed. Frankfurt: Dr. Med. Mabuse.

 

Bausewein, Ulrich. 2010. "Diözesanpriester des 20. Jahrhunderts (4): Professor Heinz Fleckenstein (1907–1995).

 

Beddies, Thomas. 2005. "Universitätspsychiatrie im Dritten Reich. Die Nervenklinik der Charité unter Karl Bonhoeffer und Maximinian de Crinis." In: Die Charité im Dritten Reich. Zur Dienstbarkeit medizinischer Wissenschaft im Nationalsozialismus, ed. Sabine Schleiermacher and Udo Schagen, 55–72. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.

 

Biddiscombe, Perry. 2006. The Denazification of Germany: A History 1945–1950. Chalford: Tempus Publishing Limited.

 

Bogner, Agnès, Pierre-Henri Jouneau, Gilbert Thollet, D. Basset, and Catherine Gauthier. 2007. "A History of Scanning Electron Microscopy Developments: Towards 'wet- STEM' Imaging." Micron 38: 390–401.

 

Bohde, Daniela. 2005. "Pellis memoriae: Die Moralisierung der Haut in Frontispizen und Anatomietheatern der Niederlande im 17. Jahrhundert - ein blinder Fleck in der Medizingeschichte nach 1945." In: Zergliederungen- Anatomie und Wahrnehmung in der frühen Neuzeit, ed. Albert Schirrmeister, 327–58. Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann.

 

Brammer, K. 1945. "Im Schatten des Scharfrichters. Besuch in der Anatomie-Schreckensrekorde der Henker." Neue Zeit 75 (October 17): 3.

 

Bräutigam, Hans H. 1998. Beruf: Frauenarzt. Erfahrungen und Erkenntnisse eines Gynäkolo- gen. Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe.

 

Bruns, Florian. 2009. Medizinethik im Nationalsozialismus. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. Buddecke, Julia. 2011. Endstation Anatomie: Die Opfer nationalsozialistischer Vernichtungsjus- tiz in Schleswig-Holstein. Hildesheim: Georg-Olms Verlag.

 

Buddrus, Michael, and Sigrid Fritzlar. 2007. Die Professoren der Universität Rostock im Dritten Reich. Ein biographisches Lexikon. München: KG Saur.

 

Clara, Max. 1937. "Zur Histologie des Bronchalepithels." Zeitschrift für miskroskopisch-ana-tomische Forschung 41: 321–47.

 

Clemente, Carmine D. 1975. Anatomy: A Regional Atlas of the Human Body. München, Berlin, Wien: Urban und Schwarzenberg.

 

Cohen, Michael M., Jr. 2010. "Overview of German, Nazi and Holocaust Medicine." American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 152A: 687–707.

 

Collmann, Hartmut. 2008. "Georges Schaltenbrand (26.11.1897–24.10.1979)." Würzburger medizinhistorische Mitteilungen 27: 63–92.

 

Cutler, Daniel S. 1997. "Origins of the Pernkopf Atlas." Journal of the American Medical Association 277(14): 1122.

 

Czech, Herwig. 2015. "Von der Richtstätte auf den Seziertisch: Zur anatomischen Verwertung von NS-Opfern in Wien, Innsbruck und Graz." Jahrbuch des Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, 2015: 141–90.

 

Ditfurth, Hoimar von. 1993. Innenansichten eines Artgenossen. Meine Bilanz. München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

 

DVPW. 2014. "Eschenburg Debatte. Deutsche Vereinigung für politische Wissenschaft." Accessed 16 March 2015. https://www.dvpw.de/informationen/eschenburg-debatte.

 

Ebenbauer, Alfred, and Wolfgang Schütz. 1997. "Origins of the Pernkopf Atlas: In Reply." Journal of the American Medical Association 277(14): 1123–24.

 

Ein milder Mahner. Nachrichtenüberblick Bistum Würzburg 20th July 2010." Accessed 22 May 2012.

 

Fangerau, Heiner, and Mathis Krischel. 2011. "Der Wert des Lebens und das Schweigen der Opfer: Zum Umgang mit den Opfern nationalsozialistischer Verfolgung in der Me- dizinhistoriographie." In: NS-"Euthanasie" und Erinnerung. Vergangenheitsaufarbeitung- Gedenkformen-Betroffenenperspektiven, ed. Stephanie Westermann, Richard Kühl, and Tim Ohnhäuser, 19–28. Berlin: Lit Verlag.

 

Fargen, Kyle M., and Brian L. Hoh. 2014. "The Debate Over Eponyms." Clinical Anatomy 27: 1137–40.

 

Ferner, Helmut. 1967. "Max Clara." Anatomischer Anzeiger 121: 220–30.

 

Ferner, Helmut, and Jochen Staubesand. 1973. Sobotta/Becher: Atlas der Anatomie des Men- schen. 16th ed. München, Berlin, Wien: Urban und Schwarzenberg.

 

Field, Richard. 1999. "A Practical Guide to Ethical Theory." Accessed 16 March 2015. https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/6087054/a-practical-guide-to-ethical-theory-catpages.

 

Fischer, Wolfram, Klaus Hierholzer, and Michael Hubenstorf. 1994. Exodus von Wissenschaften aus Berlin. Berlin: De Gruyter.

 

Gerster, Hans Jacob. 1946. "Die 'Versagerfrage' in der Lehre Knaus." Schweizer Medizinische Wochenschrift 76: 371–75.

 

———. 1955. Kinderzahl nach Wunsch und Willen. Neunte Auflage. Rüschlikon bei Zürich: Albert Müller Verlag.

 

Gest, Thomas R. 2014. "Anatomical Nomenclature and the Use of Eponyms." Clinical Anatomy 27: 1141.

 

Griesecke, Birgit, Marcus Krause, Nicolas Pethes, and Katja Sabisch. 2009. Kulturgeschichte des Menschenversuchs im 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag. Hansson, Nils, and Sabine Hildebrandt. 2014. "Swedish-German Contacts in Anatomy 1930–1950: The Example of Gösta Häggqvist and Hermann Stieve." Annals of Anatomy 196: 259–67.

 

Hayek, Heinrich. 1957. "Prof. Dr. Med. Georg Politzer." Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 69(5): 86–87.

 

Herrlinger, Robert. 1943. "Die ostische Rassenseele und der weiche Stil. Teil 1." Volk und Rasse 18: 90–97.

 

———. 1944. "Die ostische Rassenseele und der weiche Stil. Teil 2." Volk und Rasse 19: 6–13.

 

———. 1947. "Das Blut in der Milzvene des Menschen." Anatomischer Anzeiger 96: 226– 35.

 

———. 1949. "Neue funktionell-histologische Untersuchungen an der menschlichen.

 

Milz. Zeitschrift für Mikroskopisch-Anatomische Forschung 114(4): 341–65.

 

Hildebrandt, Sabine. 2008. "Capital Punishment and Anatomy: History and Ethics of an Ongoing Association." Clinical Anatomy 21: 5–14. – 290

 

———. 2011. "First Symposium on 'Anatomie im Nationalsozialismus' ('Anatomy in National Socialism'), Würzburg, Germany, September 29, 2010." Clinical Anatomy 24: 97–100.

 

———. 2013a. "The Women on Stieve's List: Victims of NationalSocialism Whose Bodies Were Used for Anatomical Research." Clinical Anatomy 26: 3–21.

 

———. 2013b. "Anatomische Gesellschaft from 1933 to 1950: A Professional Society Under Political Strain - The Benninghoff Papers." Annals of Anatomy 195: 381–92.

 

———. 2013c. "The Case of Robert Herrlinger: A Unique Postwar Controversy on the Ethics of the Anatomical Use of Bodies of the Executed During National Socialism." Annals of Anatomy 195: 11–24.

 

Hirte, Ronald, and Harry Stein. 2003. "Die Beziehungen der Universität Jena zum Konzen- trationslager Buchenwald." In: "Kämpferische Wissenschaft":Studien zur Universität Jena im Nationalsozialismus, ed. Uwe Hossfeld, Jürgen John, Oliver Lemuth, Rüdiger Stutz, 361–400. Köln: Böhlau Verlag.

 

Högberg, Ulf. 2013. Vita rockar och bruna skjortor: nazimedicin och läkare på flykt. Malmö: Universus.

 

Holubar, Karl. 2000. "The Pernkopf Story: The Austrian Perspective of 1998, 60 Years after It All Began." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43(3): 382–88.

 

Hopf, Hanns Christian. 1980. "Georges Schaltenbrand (1897–1979)." Journal of Neurology 223: 153–58.

 

Hubbard, Chris. 2001. "Historical Note: Eduard Pernkopf's Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy: The Continuing Ethical Controversy." Anatomical Record 265(5): 207–11.

 

Hubenstorf, Michael. 2000. "Anatomical Science in Vienna, 1938–1945." Lancet 355: 1385–86.

 

Hutton, Edward B., Jr. 1996. "Nazi Origins of an Anatomy Text: The Pernkopf Atlas: In Reply" Journal of the American Medical Association 276: 1634.

 

Israel, Howard A., and William E. Seidelman. 1996. "Nazi Origins of an Anatomy Text: The Pernkopf Atlas." Journal of the American Medical Association 276(20): 1633.

 

———. 1997. "Origins of the Pernkopf Atlas: In Reply." Journal of the American Medical Association 277(14): 1123.

 

Kidder, Annemarie S. 2012. Ultimate Price: Testimonies of Christians Who Resisted the Third Reich. New York: Orbis Books.

 

Kondziella, Daniel. 2009. "Thirty Neurological Eponyms Associated with the Nazi Era." European Neurology 62: 56–64.

 

Kudlien, Fridolf. 1985. Ärzte im Nationalsozialismus. Köln: Kiepenheuer und Witsch. Künzer, Wilhelm. 1972. "J. Ströder zum 60. Geburtstag." Klinische Pädiatrie 184: 157–58.

 

Lafleur, William L., Gernot Böhme, Susumu Shimazono. 2007. Dark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Research. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

 

Lagnado, Lucette. 2012. "A Scientist's Nazi-Era Past Haunts Prestigious Space Prize." Wall Street Journal 260(129), Weekend, pp. 1, 12. Accessed 16 March 2015. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204349404578101393870218834.

 

Lang, Hans-Joachim. 2007. Die Namen der Nummern: Wie es gelang, die 86 Opfer eines NS-Verbrechens zu identifizieren. Überarbeitete Ausgabe. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer

 

Verlag. Laumer, August. 2005. Heinz Fleckenstein (1907–1995) Pastoral- und Moraltheologe in Regensburg und Würzburg. Leben und Werk. Würzburg: Echter-Verlag.

 

Ley, Astrid. 1999. "Teil 2. Medizinische Fakultät." In: Die Professoren und Dozenten der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, 1743–1960, ed. Renate Wittern-Sterzel. Erlangen: Verlagsdruckerei Schmidt.

 

Malina, Peter. 1997. "Eduard Pernkopf's Anatomie oder: die Fiktion einer "reinen" Wissenschaft." Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 109(24): 935–43.

 

Malina, Peter, and Gustav Spann. 1999. "Das Senatsprojekt der Universität Wien 'Un- tersuchungen zur Anatomischen Wissenschaft in Wien 1938–1945.'" Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 111(18): 743–53.

 

Marcuse, Harold. 2002. "Pernkopf's Atlas: Ethics of Choice." Accessed 16 March 2015. http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/33d/prevyears/33d02/33d02Lectures/33d02l13.htm.

 

Marx, Jörg. 2003. "'Der Wille zum Kind' und der Streit um die physiologische Unfruchtbar-keit der Frau. Die Geburt der modernen Reproduktionsmedizin im Kriegsjahr 1942." In: Biopolitik und Rassismus, ed. Martin Stingelin, 112–59. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.

 

McManus Rich. 1996. "A Tainted Classic: Anatomy Text Draws Criticism." NIH Record 48(0). 24 September. Accessed 2 April 2014.

 

Michigan Daily Online. 1997. "Vienna University Apologizes for Nazi Involvement, Plans Investigation, 13 February 1997." Accessed 1 June 2005.

 

Mittelstaedt, Katharina. 2014. "NS-Aufarbeitung: Musikpreis wird umbenannt." Der Standard, 20 January 2014. Accessed 7 May 2014. http://derstandard.at/1389857658924/ NS-Aufarbeitung-Musikpreis-wird-umbenannt.

 

Mühlberger, Kurt. 1998a. "II. Die Belieferung des anatomischen Instituts der Universität Wien mit Studienleichen in der Zeit von 1938–1946." In: Senatsprojekt der Universität Wien: Untersuchungen zur anatomischen Wissenschaft in Wien 1938–1945, ed. Akademischer Senat der Universität Wien, 29–66. Unpublished manuscript.

 

———. 1998b. "Enthebungen an der medizinischen Fakultät 1938–1945. Professoren und Dozenten." Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 110(4–5): 115–20.

 

Neubert, Kurt. 1922. "Der Übergang der arteriellen in die venöse Blutbahn bei der Milz." Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 66: 424–50.

 

———. 1928. "Zur Morphologie der Talgdrüsen." Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft 37: 124–31.

 

———. 1950. "Die Basilarmembran des Menschen und ihr Verankerungssystem: ein morphologischer Beitrag zur Theorie des Hörens." Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 114(5): 539–88.

 

Neugebauer, Wolfgang. 1998. "Zum Umgang mit sterblichen Resten von NS-Opfern nach 1945." In: Senatsprojekt der Universität Wien: Untersuchungen zur anatomischenWissen- schaft in Wien 1938–1945, ed. Akademischer Senat der Universität Wien, 459–65. Unpublished manuscript.

 

Noack, Thorsten. 2008. "Begehrte Leichen. Der Berliner Anatom Hermann Stieve (1886–1952) und die medizinische Verwertung Hingerichteter im Natinoalsozialismus." Medizin, Gesellschaft und Geschichte. Jahrbuch des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin der Robert Bosch Stiftung 26: 9–35.

 

———. 2012. "Anatomical Departments in Bavaria and the Corpses of Executed Victims of National Socialism." Annals of Anatomy 194: 286–92.

 

Oehler-Klein, Sigrid, Dirk Preuss, and Volker Roelcke. 2012. "The Use of Executed Nazi Victims in Anatomy: Findings from the Institute of Anatomy at Giessen University, Pre- and Post-1945." Annals of Anatomy 194: 293–97.

 

Olry, Regis. 2014a. "Anatomical Eponyms, Part 1: To Look on the Bright Side." Clinical Anatomy 27: 1145–48.

 

———. 2014b. "Anatomical Eponyms, Part 2: The Other Side of the Coin." Clinical Anatomy 27: 1142–44.

 

Ortmann. Rolf. 1986. Die jüngere Geschichte des anatomischen Instituts der Universität Köln 1919–1984. Köln: Böhlau Verlag.

 

Panush, Richard S. 1996. "Nazi Origins of an Anatomy Text: The Pernkopf Atlas." Journal of the American Medical Association 276(20): 1633–34.

 

———. 1997. "Origins of the Pernkopf Atlas." Journal of the American Medical Association 277(14): 1123.

 

Panush, Richard S., and Robert M. Briggs. 1995. "The Exodus of a Medical School." Annals of Internal Medicine 123(12): 963.

 

Paterniti, Michael. 2003. "The Most Dangerous Beauty." In: The Best American Magazine Writing in 2003, ed. American Society of Magazine Editors, 2–31. New York: HarperCollins.

 

Peiffer, Jürgen. 1997. Hirnforschung im Zwielicht: Beispiele verführbarer Wissenschaft aus der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. Husum: Mathiessen Verlag.

 

———. 1998. "Die Neurologie im 'Dritten Reich' und ihre Nachwirkungen. Nervenarzt, 69, 728–33.

 

Pernkopf, Eduard. 1963. Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy. Volume 1: Head and Neck. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders.

 

———. 1964. Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy. Volume 2: Thorax, Abdomen and Extremities. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders.

 

Perschke, Birgit. 2007. ""Studentenausweis statt Arbeitspass!" Jobs neben dem Studium, 1943–1948." In: Zwischen "Endsieg" und Examen. Studieren an der Universität Köln 1943–1948. Brüche und Kontinuitäten, ed. Margit Szöllösi-Janzen, 98–111. Nümbrecht: KIRSCH-Verlag.

 

Peuker, Torsten, and Christian Schulz. 2004. Der über Leichen geht. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. Pfürtner, Stephan H. 2001. Nicht ohne Hoffnung: erlebte Geschichte 1922–1945. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer GmbH.

 

Richter, Horst-Eberhard. 1986. Die Chance des Gewissens. Erinnerungen und Assoziationen. Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe.

 

Rilke, Rainer Maria. 1963. Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge. Frankfurt am Main: Insel Verlag. First published in 1910.

 

Röbel, Sven, and Andreas Wassermann. 2004. "Händler des Todes." Der Spiegel 4 (19 January): 36–50.

 

Röhrich, H. 1968. "In Memoriam Robert Herrlinger." Anatomischer Anzeiger 123(5): 573–75.

 

Roland, Charles. 1989. "An Underground Medical School in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1941– 1942." Medical History 33: 399–419.

 

Schiebler, Theodor Heinrich. 1982. "Anatomie in Würzburg (von 1593 bis zur Gegenwart)." In: Vierhundert Jahre Universität Würzburg: Eine Festschrift, ed. Peter Baumgart, 985–1004. Neustadt an der Aisch: Degener und Co.

 

Schneider, Klaus W. 1965. "Ernst Wollheim zum 65. Geburtstag." Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 46: 1–6.

 

Schönhagen, Benigna. 1992. "Das Gräberfeld X auf dem Tübinger Stadtfriedhof. Die verdrängte 'Normalität' nationalsozialistischer Vernichtungspolitik." In: Menschenver- achtung und Opportunismus, Tübingen: Zur Medizin im Dritten Reich, ed. Jürgen Peiffer, 69–92. Tübingen: Attempto.

 

Schottlaender, Rudolf. 1988. Verfolgte Berliner Wissenschaft. Ein Gedenkwerk. Berlin: Edition Hentrich.

 

Schütz, Wolfgang, Karl Holubar, and Wilfred Druml. 1998. "On the 60th Anniversary of the Dismissal of Jewish Faculty Members from the Vienna Medical School." Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 110(4–5): 113–14.

 

Schütz, Mathias, Maximilian Schochow, Jens Waschke, Georg Marckmann, and Florian Steger. 2015. "Anatomische Vitamin C-Forschung im Nationalsozialismus und in der Nachkriegszeit: Max Claras Humanexperimente an der Anatomischen Anstalt München." Medizinhistorisches Journal, 50: 330–355.

 

Seidelman, William E. 1996. "Nuremberg Doctors' Trial: Nuremberg Lamentation: For the Forgotten Victims of Medical Science." British Medical Journal 313: 1463–67.

 

———. 1999. "Medicine and Murder in the Third Reich." In: Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed 19 May 2021 https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/medicine-and-murder-in-the-third-reich.

 

Seidler, Eduard. 1968. "Robert Herrlinger, 1914–1968." Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 93(21): 1078–79.

 

Shevell, Michael I., and Bradley K. Evans. 1994. "The 'Schaltenbrand Experiment,' Würzburg, 1940: Scientific, Historical, and Ethical Perspectives." Neurology 44: 350–56.

 

Space Medicine Association. 2013. "Strughold Award." Accessed 7 May 2014 https://spacemedicineassociation.org/strughold-award/.

 

Spiro, Howard M. 1998. "The Silence of Words: Some Thoughts on the Pernkopf Atlas." Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 110(4–5): 183–84.

 

Stieve, Hermann. 1947. "Die 'Versagerfrage' in der Lehre Knaus - Eine Richtigstellung zum Aufsatz von H. J. Gerster." Schweizer Medizinische Wochenschrift 77: 782–83.

 

———. 1953. "Cyclus, Physiologie und Pathologie (Anatomie)." In: Eymer H., Naujoks H. (eds) Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie (Neunundzwanzigste Versammlung Abgehalten zu München vom 7. bis 11. Oktober 1952), vol 29. J.F. Bergmann-Verlag, Munich.

 

Ströder, Josef. 1985. Angeklagt wegen Polenfreundschaft. Als Kinderarzt im besetzten Krakau. Freiburg: Herderbücherei.

 

Strous, Rael D., and Morris C. Edelmann. 2007. "Eponyms and the Nazi Era: Time to Remember and Time for Change." Israel Medical Association Journal 9: 207–14.

 

Taylor, Frederick. 2011. Exorcising Hitler: The Occupation and Denazification of Germany. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

 

Urban & Schwarzenberg. 1977. The Urban & Schwarzenberg Collection of Medical Illustrations since 1896. Baltimore, Munich: Urban & Schwarzenberg.

 

Vollnhals, Clemens. 1991. Entnazifizierung: Politische Säuberung und Rehabilitierung in den vier Besatzungszonen 1945–1949. München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

 

Voss, Hermann, and Robert Herrlinger. 1946. Taschenbuch der Anatomie. 3 Bände. 1st ed. Jena: Gustav-Fischer-Verlag.

 

Waldinger, Joel. 2011. "The Mildred Fish-Harnack Story." Wisconsin Public Radio. Accessed 4 May 2014. https://www.wpr.org/listen/37156.

 

Wallis, Hedwig. 1989. "Medizinstudentin im Nationalsozialismus." In: 100 Jahre Universitätskrankenhaus Eppendorf 1889–1989, ed. Ursula Weisser, 399–404. Tübingen: Attempto.

 

Weissmann, Gerald. 1985. "Springtime for Pernkopf." Reprinted 1987 in: They All Laughed at Christopher Columbus, ed. Gerald Weissmann, 48–69. New York: Times Books.

 

Wetz, Franz J., Brigitte Tag, and Klaus Tiedemann. 2001. Schöne Neue Körperwelten. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

 

Williams, David J. 1988. "The History of Eduard Pernkopf's Topographische Anatomie des Menschen." Journal of Biocommunication 15(2): 2–12.

 

Williams, Robyn. 1999. "Nazi Science, Transcript of a Radio Program: Ockham's Razor, 29 August." Accessed April 2014. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/ockhamsrazor/nazi-science/3558712.

 

Winkelmann, Andreas. 2012a. "The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism: A Preliminary Analysis Based on Society Proceedings." Annals of Anatomy 194: 243–50.

 

———. 2012b. "Should We Teach Abernethy and Zuckerkandl?" Clinical Anatomy 25: 241–245.

 

Winkelmann, Andreas, and Thorsten Noack. 2010. "The Clara Cell: A 'Third Reich Eponym'?" European Respiratory Journal 36: 722–27.

 

Winkelmann, Andreas, and Udo Schagen. 2009. "Hermann Stieve's Clinical-Anatomical Research on Executed Women during the 'Third Reich.'" Clinical Anatomy 22(2): 163–71.

 

Wonschik, Helmut. 2005. Mildreds Asche. Radio Program Südwestdeutscher Rundfunk. Wüstenfeld, Ewald. 1972. "Nachruf Kurt Neubert." Anatomischer Anzeiger 132: 435–39.

 

Wulfert, Tatjana. 2010. "Margarete von Zahn (geb. 1924)." Der Tagesspiegel 18 November 2010. Accessed 26 February 2014. http://www.tagesspiegel.de/berlin/nachrufe/marga rete-von-zahn-geb-1924/2892332.html.

 

Zassenhaus, Hiltgunt. 1974. Ein Baum blüht im November. Bericht aus den Jahren des zweiten Weltkrieges. Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe. English version: Zassenhaus, Hiltgunt. 1974. Walls. Resisting the Third Reich—One Woman's Story. Boston: Beacon Press.

 

Zimmermann, Susanne. 2007. "... er lebt weiter in seinen Arbeiten, die als unverrück- bare Steine in das Gebäude der Wissenschaft eingefügt sind": Zum Umgang mit den Arbeiten des Anatomen Hermann Stieve (1886–1952) in der Nachkriegszeit. In: Täterschaft-Strafverfolgung-Schuldentlastung. Ärztebiographien zwischen nationaler Ge- waltherrschaft und deutscher Nachkriegsgeschichte, ed. Boris Böhm, and Norbert Haase, 29–40. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag.

 

Zutt, Jürg. 1973. "In Memoriam Heinrich Scheller 1901–1972." Nervenarzt 44: 386–87.

 




About the Author

Sabine Hildebrandt is an associate professor of pediatrics in the Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics at Boston Children's Hospital, and a lecturer on Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. She teaches anatomy and history of anatomy at Harvard Medical School and Harvard College. Her book "The Anatomy of Murder: Ethical Transgressions and Anatomical Science during the Third Reich" (Berghahn Books 2016) is the first systematic study of anatomy during National Socialism. The biography of Jewish physician refugee Käthe Beutler was published by Hentrich& Hentrich in 2019. She is currently researching the history of the Anatomical Institute as a member of the Historical Commission on the Reichsuniversität Strassburg 1941-44. She is also co-editor of "Recognizing the Past in the Present: Medicine before, during and after the Holocaust" to be published by Berghahn Books in 2021.

 

Sabine Hildebrandt, M.D.
Associate Professor of Pediatrics;
Lecturer on Global Health and Social Medicine
Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Contact: Sabine.Hildebrandt@childrens.harvard.edu



Conflict of Interest Statement

The Journal of Biocommunication Management Board and Editors believe that transparency in academic research is essential. Our JBC authors are now required to disclose any possible conflict of interest when submitting a manuscript. In accordance with the Journal of Biocommunication's editorial policy, no potential conflict of interest has been reported or declared by this author.